Introduction and history of metal casting


Metal casting is a process in which a metal is smelted […]

Metal casting is a process in which a metal is smelted into a liquid that meets certain requirements and poured into a mold, and cooled, solidified, and cleaned to obtain a casting having a predetermined shape, size, and performance. Casting blanks reduce the cost and reduce the time to some extent due to the near-forming, to achieve no machining or a small amount of processing. Casting is one of the basic processes of the modern machinery manufacturing industry.

In ancient times, China, India, Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and Rome had cast weapons, ceremonies, art, and household appliances. Early castings were made of gold, silver, copper and their alloys. The Bronze Age is a glorious page in the history of human civilization; iron castings have appeared in the future. China used iron castings extensively during the Warring States Period, and its technical traditions have a long history. Metal casting metallurgy and casting are complementary processes. The term “smelting” in ancient China reflects this fact. Although the later casting process has evolved into a relatively independent sub-discipline in the mechanical manufacturing process, it is still inseparable from the metallurgical process.

Cast iron has a long history, but its development speed is slow. It was not until 1722 that Leomir created the "Cupola" and began to study the structure and fracture of cast iron with a microscope. In 1734, "Deferro" by Svedenberg was published, and there was a preliminary theoretical understanding of the cast iron process. Between 1765 and 1785, due to the advent of steam engines, cast iron was used extensively in the machine manufacturing industry since the 1760s, and the transport sector also used cast iron rails. In 1788, a 60-kilometer long water-transported cast iron pipe was produced for the Paris waterworks. The increase in the demand for cast iron has promoted the technical progress and theoretical research work of cast iron.